Information for Area Code: 908-xxx-xxxx - NJ - NEW JERSEY
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|State of New Jersey|
|Official language(s)||English de facto|
|- Total||8,729 sq mi
|- Width||70 miles (110 km)|
|- Length||150 miles (240 km)|
|- % water||14.9|
|- Latitude||38°55'N to 41°21'23"N|
|- Longitude||73°53'39"W to 75°35'W|
|Population||Ranked 11th (as of 2006)|
|- Total (2000)||8,414,350 (8,724,560 as of 2006)|
|- Density||1,134/sq mi
|- Median income||$56,772 (2nd)|
|- Highest point||High Point
1,803 ft (550 m)
|- Mean||246 ft (75 m)|
|- Lowest point||Atlantic Ocean
0 ft (0 m)
|Admission to Union||December 18, 1787 (3rd)|
|Governor||Jon Corzine (D)|
|U.S. Senators||Frank Lautenberg (D)
Bob Menendez (D)
|Time zone||Eastern: UTC-5/-4|
|Abbreviations||NJ N.J. US-NJ|
New Jersey (IPA: /nuː ˈdʒɝː.zi/) is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States of America. The state is named after the island of Jersey in the English Channel. It is bordered on the north by New York, on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, on the southwest by Delaware, and on the west by Pennsylvania. Parts of New Jersey lie within the metropolitan areas of New York and Philadelphia.
Inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, the first European settlements in the area were established by the Swedes and Dutch in the early 1600s. The British later seized control of the region, which was granted to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton as the colony of New Jersey. New Jersey was an important site during the American Revolutionary War; several decisive battles were fought there. The winter quarters of the revolutionary army were established twice by George Washington in Morristown, which was called the military capital of the revolution. The New Jersey Journal, a newspaper published by Shepard Kollock, who established his press in Chatham during 1779, became a catalyst in the revolution. News of events came directly to Kollock from Washington's headquarters in nearby Morristown, which he published to boost the morale of the troops and their families, and he conducted lively debates about the efforts for independence with those who opposed and supported the cause he championed. Later, working-class cities such as Paterson and Trenton helped to drive the Industrial Revolution in the nineteenth century. New Jersey's position at the center of the BosWash megalopolis, between Boston, New York City, Philadelphia, Baltimore and Washington, D.C., fueled its rapid growth through the suburban boom of the 1950s and beyond.
- See also: List of New Jersey counties
New Jersey is bordered on the north and northeast by New York; on the east by the Atlantic Ocean; on the south and southwest by Delaware across Delaware Bay; and on the west by Pennsylvania across the Delaware River. Because of its dense population and because most communities of northern New Jersey do not have the widespread reservoir system of neighboring Greater New York City, the slightest dry season leads to drought warnings; but because there are many streams and rivers close to these communities, the slightest above average rainfall causes frequent flooding as many parts of Northern New Jersey are part of a flood plain. It is also at the center of the Boston to Washington megalopolis.
New Jersey is broadly divided into three geographic regions: North Jersey, Central Jersey, and South Jersey. North Jersey lies within New York City's general sphere of influence (i.e. largely within the New York metropolitan area), and some residents commute to the city to work. Central Jersey is a largely suburban area. South Jersey is within Philadelphia's general sphere of influence, and most of it is included in the Delaware Valley. Such geographic definitions are loosely defined, however, and there is often dispute over where one region begins and another ends. Some people do not consider Central Jersey to exist at all, but most believe it is a separate geographic and cultural area from the North and South.
The federal Office of Management and Budget divides New Jersey's counties into seven Metropolitan Statistical Areas, including sixteen counties in the New York City or Philadelphia metro areas. Four counties have independent metro areas, and Warren County joins another Pennsylvania-based metro area. See Metropolitan Statistical Areas of New Jersey for details.
Additionally, the New Jersey Commerce, Economic Growth, & Tourism Commission divides the state into six distinct regions to facilitate the state's tourism industry. The regions are:
- Gateway Region, encompassing Hudson County, Essex County, Union County, Middlesex County, Bergen County, and Passaic County.
- Skylands Region, encompassing Sussex County, Morris County, Warren County, Hunterdon County, and Somerset County.
- Shore Region, encompassing Monmouth County and Ocean County.
- Delaware River Region, encompassing Mercer County (Mercer County is the only Delaware River Region county in the New York Metropolitan Area), Burlington County, Camden County, Gloucester County, and Salem County.
- Greater Atlantic City Region, encompassing Atlantic County.
- Southern Shore Region, encompassing Cumberland County and Cape May County.
Major rivers include the Manasquan, Maurice, Mullica, Passaic, Hackensack, Rahway, Rancocas, Raritan, Musconetcong, Toms, and Delaware rivers. The Palisades are a line of steep cliffs on the lower west side of the Hudson River.
Areas managed by the National Park Service include:
- Appalachian National Scenic Trail
- Delaware National Scenic River
- Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area
- Edison National Historic Site in West Orange
- Ellis Island National Monument
- Gateway National Recreation Area in Monmouth County
- Great Egg Harbor River
- Morristown National Historical Park in Morristown
- New Jersey Coastal Heritage Trail Route
- New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve
Prominent geographic features include:
- Delaware Water Gap
- Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge
- The Highlands
- New Jersey Meadowlands
- Pine Barrens
- South Mountain
New Jersey has a temperate climate, with hot humid summers and cold winters. During the hurricane season, tropical cyclones can hit New Jersey, though it is uncommon for one to remain at hurricane strength so far to the north. During the winter months, Nor'easters can dump heavy amounts of precipitation across the state.
The temperatures vary greatly from the northernmost part of New Jersey to the southernmost part of New Jersey. For example, these are the average high and low temperatures for Cape May, near the state's southernmost ocean-facing point, and Sussex, in the mountainous northwest:
|January||34 (1)||14 (-10)||42 (6)||27 (-3)|
|February||38 (3)||16 (-9)||43 (6)||28 (-2)|
|March||47 (8)||25 (-4)||51 (11)||35 (2)|
|April||59 (15)||35 (2)||60 (16)||43 (6)|
|May||70 (21)||45 (7)||69 (21)||53 (12)|
|June||78 (26)||54 (12)||78 (26)||62 (17)|
|July||83 (28)||59 (15)||84 (29)||67 (19)|
|August||82 (28)||57 (14)||83 (28)||66 (19)|
|September||74 (23)||49 (9)||77 (25)||60 (16)|
|October||63 (17)||37 (3)||66 (19)||49 (9)|
|November||51 (11)||30 (-1)||56 (13)||40 (4)|
|December||39 (4)||21 (-6)||47 (8)||31 (-1)|
Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa. The pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains. During this period, Pangaea broke apart into Laurasia and Gondwana, and the North American continent became separated from the North African continent. Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers that reached New Jersey. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers, swamps, and gorges.
New Jersey was originally settled by Native Americans, primarily the Lenni-Lenape. The Lenape were loosely organized groups that practiced small-scale agriculture (mainly based on corn) in order to increase their largely mobile hunter-gatherer society in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, and western Long Island Sound. The Lenape society was divided into matrilinear clans that were based upon common female ancestors. These clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle, Turkey, and Wolf. They first encountered the Dutch in the early 1600s, and their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade.
Since the state's inception, New Jersey has been characterized by ethnic and religious diversity. In East Jersey, New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scottish Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants from New York. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres, a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. West Jersey had fewer people than East Jersey, and both English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. Both Jerseys remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, and commercial farming only developed sporadically. Some townships, though, like Burlington and Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, and New Jersey boasted a population of 120,000 by 1775.
Much of New Jersey was claimed by the Dutch. The Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern New York (New Amsterdam) and New Jersey. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch policy required formal purchase of all land settled upon, and the first such purchase was of Manhattan, by Peter Minuit.
The entire region became a territory of England in 1664, when an English fleet under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into what is today New York Harbor and took over the colony, against extremely little resistance.
During the English Civil War the Channel Isle of Jersey remained loyal to the Crown and gave sanctuary to the King. It was from the Royal Square in St. Helier that Charles II of England was first proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York (later King James II) the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony (as opposed to a royal colony). James then granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River (the land that would become New Jersey) to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.
Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule was in the Hudson River region and came primarily from New England. On March 18, 1673, Berkeley sold his half of the colony to Quakers in England (with William Penn acting as trustee for a time), who settled the Delaware Valley region as a Quaker colony. New Jersey was governed as two distinct provinces, West Jersey and East Jersey, for the 28 years between 1674 and 1702. In 1702, the two provinces were united under a royal, rather than a proprietary, governor.
Revolutionary War era
New Jersey was one of the thirteen colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution. The New Jersey Constitution of 1776 was passed July 2, 1776, just two days before the Second Continental Congress declared American Independence from Britain.
New Jersey representatives Richard Stockton, John Witherspoon, Francis Hopkinson, John Hart, and Abraham Clark were among the men who signed the United States Declaration of Independence. These men, just like all the others, took tremendous risks in order to fight for independence and all went on to serve their newly founded country for the rest of their lives. Distinguished lawyer Richard Stockton, New Jersey-born and College of New Jersey graduate, sacrificed his royal judicial title and his considerable international economic interest in order to be an elected delegate for New Jersey at the General Congress. John Witherspoon was a Scottish immigrant. He came to New Jersey to serve as the sixth president of the College of New Jersey. He was a world renowned Presbyterian minister and became a leading member of the Continental Congress. Witherspoon went on to become one of the leaders of the new national Presbyterian church. Francis Hopkinson was somewhat of a renaissance man for his time. He was articulate in several fields of the arts and a very impressive scientist. Perhaps the capstone of his career was his appointment by President George Washington to the federal bench. John Hart was a prominent landowner and judge of the Hunterdon County court. Like Stockton, he sacrificed his high standing with the royal court and dedicated his life to the New Jersey Assembly. After signing the Declaration of Independence, he went on to become the speaker of the New Jersey Assembly. The last of the men, Abraham Clark, was native to Elizabethtown. He was slightly different from his fellow New Jersey representatives as he jumped from job to job working as a farmer, surveyor, transporter, legal adviser, and finally politician. He was well liked in all these fields and had become a prominent member of society, but he found his home in government. He held numerous political positions at all the various levels of government.
It was an act of the Provincial Congress, which made itself into the state Legislature. To reassure neutrals, it provided that it would become void if New Jersey reached a reconciliation with Great Britain.
During the American Revolutionary War, British and American armies crossed New Jersey numerous times and several pivotal battles took place in the state. Because of this, New Jersey today is often referred to as "The Crossroads of the Revolution."
On Christmas Day, 1776, the Continental Army under George Washington crossed the Delaware River and engaged the unprepared Hessian troops in the Battle of Trenton. Slightly more than a week after victory at Trenton, on January 3, 1777, the American forces gained an important victory by stopping Cornwallis's charges at the Second Battle of Trenton. By evading Cornwallis's army, Washington made a surprise attack on Princeton, and successfully defeated the British forces there.
Later, American forces under Washington met the forces under General Henry Clinton at the Battle of Monmouth in an indecisive engagement. Washington attempted to take the British column by surprise; when the British army attempted to flank the Americans, the Americans retreated in disorder. The ranks were later reorganized and withstood the British charges.
In the summer of 1783, the Continental Congress met in Nassau Hall at Princeton University, making Princeton the nation's capital for four months. It was there that the Continental Congress learned of the signing of the Treaty of Paris (1783), which ended the war.
New Jersey was the third state to ratify the United States Constitution, which was overwhelmingly popular in New Jersey, as it prevented New York and Pennsylvania from charging and keeping tariffs on goods imported from Europe. In November 20, 1789, the state became the first in the newly-formed Union to ratify the Bill of Rights.
The 1776 New Jersey State Constitution gave the vote to "all inhabitants" who had a certain level of wealth. This included both women and blacks; although not married women, who could not own property. Both sides, in several elections, claimed that the other side had had unqualified women vote, and mocked them for use of "petticoat electors" (entitled to vote or not); on the other hand, both parties passed Voting Rights Acts. In 1807, the legislature passed a bill interpreting the constitution to mean universal white male suffrage, excluding paupers. (This was less revolutionary than it sounds: the "constitution" was itself only an act of the legislature.)
On February 15, 1804, New Jersey became the last northern state to abolish slavery by enacting legislation that slowly phased out slavery. However, by the close of the Civil War, about a dozen African-Americans in New Jersey were still apprenticed freedmen. New Jersey initially refused to ratify the Constitutional Amendments banning slavery and granting rights to America's Black population.
Unlike the Revolutionary War, no Civil War battles took place within the state. However, throughout the course of the Civil War, over 80,000 enlisted in the Northern army to defeat the Southern rebels. In total, soldiers from New Jersey formed 4 militia regiments, 33 infantry regiments, 3 cavalry regiments, and 5 batteries of light artillery.
New Jersey was one of the few states to reject President Abraham Lincoln twice in national elections, and sided with Stephen Douglas and George B. McClellan during their campaigns. McClellan later became governor. During the war, the state was led first by Republican Governor Charles Smith Olden, then by Democrat Joel Parker.
In 1844, the second state constitution was ratified and brought into effect. Counties thereby became districts for the State Senate, and some realignment of boundaries (including the creation of Mercer County) immediately followed. This provision was retained in the 1947 Constitution, but was overturned by the Supreme Court of the United States in 1962 by the decision Baker v. Carr.
While the Governorship was stronger than under the 1776 constitution (it could hardly be weaker), the constitution of 1844 created many offices that were not responsible to him, or to the people, and gave him a three-year term, but he could not succeed himself.
In the Industrial Revolution, cities like Paterson grew and prospered. Previously, the economy had been largely agrarian, which was problematically subject to crop failures and poor soil. This caused a shift to a more industrialized economy, one based on manufactured commodities such as textiles and silk. Inventor Thomas Edison also became an important figure of the Industrial Revolution, having been granted 1,093 patents. Transportation was greatly improved as locomotion and steamboats were introduced to New Jersey.
Iron mining was also a prevalent industry during the middle to late 1800s. Mines such as Mt. Hope, Mine Hill and the Rockaway Valley Mines created a thriving industry, which spawned new towns and was one of the driving forces behind the need for the Morris Canal.
Through both World Wars, New Jersey was a center for war production, especially in naval construction. Battleships, cruisers, and destroyers were all made in this state. In addition, Camp Kilmer, Fort Dix (originally called "Camp Dix"), and Camp Merritt were all constructed to help American soldiers through both World Wars. New Jersey also became a principal location for defense in the Cold War. Fourteen Nike Missile stations were constructed, especially for the defense of New York City and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. PT-109, commanded by Lt.(jg) John F. Kennedy, was built at the Elco Boatworks in Bayonne, and the aircraft carrier USS Enterprise (CV-6) was briefly docked at the Military Ocean Terminal in Bayonne in the 1950s before she was sent to Japan to be scrapped. In 1962, the world's first nuclear powered cargo ship, the NS Savannah was launched at Camden.
New Jersey became a prosperous state through the Roaring Twenties but fell from prosperity under the Great Depression. Begging licenses were even offered to the unemployed by the state government in order to provide money for those who could not be helped by the exhausted state funds. During this time period, the zeppelin Hindenburg infamously went up in flames over Lakehurst, and the SS Morro Castle beached itself on the Jersey Shore after going up in flames while at sea.
In the 1960s, several race riots sprang up in New Jersey, the first of which occurred in Jersey City on August 2, 1964. Several other riots ensued in 1967, in the cities of Newark and Plainfield. Camden also dealt with race riots in 1971.
Throughout the twentieth century and into the twenty-first, New Jersey was afflicted by nor'easters that caused blizzards and flooding. Those are rather common storms in New Jersey and elsewhere on the east coast of the US, although hurricanes and tropical storms occasionally come to visit, such as Hurricane Floyd in 1999.
Residents of New Jersey are most commonly referred to as "New Jerseyans" or "New Jerseyites." The United States Census Bureau, as of July 1, 2006, estimated New Jersey's population at 8,724,560, which represents an increase of 310,213, or 3.7%, since the last census in 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 254,766 people (that is 705,812 births minus 451,046 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 79,211 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 357,111 people, and migration within the country produced a net loss of 277,900 people. There are 1.6 million foreign-born living in the state (accounting for 19.2% of the population).
As of 2006, New Jersey is the eleventh-most populous state, but the most densely populated, at 1,174 residents per square mile (453 per km²), although the density varies widely across the state. It is also the 2nd wealthiest state per capita in the United States (behind only Connecticut) as per the United States Census Bureau.
Race, ethnicity, and ancestry
|Demographics of New Jersey (csv)|
|AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native - NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander|
|2000 (total population)||79.16%||14.98%||0.61%||6.28%||0.13%|
|2000 (Hispanic only)||11.87%||1.29%||0.20%||0.10%||0.05%|
|2005 (total population)||77.68%||15.19%||0.66%||7.70%||0.15%|
|2005 (Hispanic only)||13.66%||1.45%||0.22%||0.12%||0.06%|
|Growth 2000-2005 (total population)||1.68%||5.01%||11.60%||27.06%||18.52%|
|Growth 2000-2005 (non-Hispanic only)||-1.41%||3.89%||8.86%||27.17%||17.30%|
|Growth 2000-2005 (Hispanic only)||19.21%||16.92%||17.36%||20.28%||20.68%|
New Jersey is one of the most religiously and ethnically diverse states in the country. It has the third largest Jewish population by percentage after New York and California; the second largest Muslim population by percent (after Michigan); the third highest Asian population by percent, the fourth highest Italian-American population by percent of any state according to the 2000 Census; and a large percentage of the population is Black, White American, Hispanic American, Arab American, and Asian American. It has the second highest Indian American population of any state by absolute numbers.
Newark and Camden are two of the poorest cities in America, but New Jersey as a whole has the highest median household income among the states. This is largely because so much of New Jersey consists of suburbs, most of them affluent, of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey is also the most densely populated state in the nation, and the only state that has had every one of its counties deemed "urban" as defined by the Census Bureau's Combined Statistical Area.
As from the statistics above, New Jersey is a very diverse place, although the vast majority of the people living in the state are white and American born. The state has very sizable enclaves of different language speaking communities. Some of these include (by ranking)
- Spanish-spoken in many of the Hudson County towns, especially Union City.
- Portuguese-spoken throughout the entire state, but Brazilian Portuguese is common in Newark.
- Italian-spoken throughout the state also, but is concentrated in the towns of Hudson and Essex counties.
The dominant race, ethnicity, or ancestry by county, according to the 2000 Census, are the following:
- Italian - Bergen, Morris, Somerset, Ocean, Monmouth, Mercer, Middlesex, Union, Passaic, Hudson, Atlantic, Cumberland PDF (468 KiB)
- Irish - Sussex, Burlington, Camden, Gloucester, Cape May PDF (468 KiB)
- Black - Essex PDF (468 KiB)
- German - Warren, Hunterdon, Salem PDF (468 KiB)
6.7% of its population were reported as under 5, 24.8% under 18, and 13.2% were 65 or older. Females made up approximately 51.5% of the population.
|Refused to identify||5|
(no denomination stated)
(by religion only)
|Assemblies of God||*|
|Church of Christ||*|
|Church of God||*|
|Seventh Day Adventist||*|
*Less than 0.5%
The Bureau of Economic Analysis estimates that New Jersey's total state product in 2004 was $416 billion. Its per capita personal income in 2004 was $41,636, 2nd in the U.S. and 126% of the national average of $33,041. Its median household income is the highest in the nation with $55,146. It is ranked 2nd in the nation by the number of places with per capita incomes above national average with 76.4%. Nine of New Jersey's counties are in the wealthiest 100 of the country.
New Jersey has seven tax brackets for determining income tax rates. The rates range from 1.4 to 8.97%. The standard sales tax rate is 7%, applicable to all retail sales unless specifically exempt by law. Exemptions include most food items for at-home preparation, medicines, clothing (except fur items), footwear, and disposable paper products for use in the home. Approximately 30 New Jersey municipalities are designated as Urban Enterprise Zones and shoppers are charged a 3½% tax rate, half of the rate charged outside the UEZs. Sections of Elizabeth and Jersey City are examples of communities that are subject to the lower sales tax rate. All real property located in the state is subject to property tax unless specifically exempted by statute. New Jersey does not assess an intangible personal property tax, but it does impose an inheritance tax.
New Jersey's greatest natural resource is its location, which has made the state a crossroads of commerce and an ideal area for manufacturing. Other commercial advantages include its extensive transportation system, which puts one quarter of all United States consumers within overnight delivery range. Lake and seaside resorts have contributed to New Jersey's rank of fifth among the states in revenues from tourism.
Despite more than three centuries of development almost half of New Jersey is still wooded. The chief tree of the northern forests is the oak. A large part of the southern section is in pine. Jersey oak has been used extensively in shipbuilding.
The mineral resources in New Jersey are small. The state, however, does rank high in smelting and refining minerals from other states.
New Jersey's chief conservation agency is the Department of Environmental Protection, which was formed in 1970 by the merger of parts of the Department of Conservation and Economic Development with parts of the Department of Health. The department has an extensive range of responsibilities that include acquiring and preserving land for recreation, wildlife protection, and curbing pollution. The department also regulates activities on public waters, oversees hunting and fishing, and has jurisdiction over some state-owned land. In addition, the conservation agency is responsible for maintaining an adequate high-quality water supply for industry, recreation, and aquatic life. New Jersey launched a long-range conservation and development program under the terms of its 1958 Water Supply Law
The Port Newark-Elizabeth Marine Terminal was the world's first container port and is one of the world's largest container ports. Newark Liberty International Airport is ranked seventh among the nation's busiest airports and among the top 20 busiest airports in the world.
Its agricultural outputs are nursery stock, horses, vegetables, fruits and nuts, seafood, and dairy products. In particular, cranberries, peach, tomato and eggplant are some of the state's largest crops. The local entities that support agricultural efforts are: NJDA|New Jersey Department of Agriculture and Rutgers Cooperative Research & Extension. Hammonton in the southern part of the state is known as the blueberry capital of the world. Its industrial outputs are pharmaceutical and chemical products, food processing, electric equipment, printing and publishing, and tourism. New Jersey's economy has a large base of heavy industry and chemical manufacturing. Additionally, New Jersey is home to the largest petroleum containment system outside of the Middle East.
New Jersey hosts several business headquarters, including twenty-four Fortune 500 companies. Paramus is noted for having one of the highest retail sales per person ratios in the nation. Several New Jersey counties such as Somerset (#7), Morris (10), Hunterdon (13), Bergen (21), Monmouth (42) counties have been ranked among the highest-income counties in the United States. Four others are also in the top 100.
New Jersey is infamous for its abundance of oil refineries. The smell given off by the refineries is common to motorists who travel the New Jersey Turnpike which runs through the central industrial corridor of the state. This is a list of the major oil refineries in the state:
- Bayway Refinery (ConocoPhillips), Linden 230,000 barrels per day (bpd)
- Eagle Point Refinery (Sunoco), Westville 145,000 bpd
- Paulsboro Asphalt Refinery (Citgo), Paulsboro 51,000 bpd
- Paulsboro Refinery (Valero), Paulsboro 160,000 bpd
- Perth Amboy Refinery (Chevron), Perth Amboy 80,000 bpd
- Port Reading Refinery (Hess), Port Reading 62,000 bpd
While home to many chemical plants New Jersey also is home to major pharmaceutical firms Merck, Wyeth, Johnson and Johnson, sanofi-aventis, Novartis, Pfizer, Hoffman-LaRoche, Bristol-Myers Squibb, and Schering-Plough. It draws upon its large and well-educated labor pool which also supports the myriad of industries that exist today.
The New Jersey Turnpike is one of the best-known and most-trafficked roadways in the United States. This toll road carries interstate traffic between Delaware and New York, and the East Coast in general. Commonly referred to as simply "the Turnpike," it is known for its numerous rest-areas named after prominent New Jerseyans as diverse as inventor Thomas Edison; United States Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton; United States Presidents Grover Cleveland and Woodrow Wilson; writers James Fenimore Cooper, Joyce Kilmer, and Walt Whitman; patriot Molly Pitcher; Red Cross advocate Clara Barton; and football coach Vince Lombardi.
The Garden State Parkway, or simply "the Parkway," carries more in-state traffic and runs from the town of Montvale along New Jersey's northern border to its southernmost tip at Cape May for 172.4 miles. It is the trunk that connects the New York metropolitan area to Atlantic City.
Other expressways in New Jersey include the Atlantic City Expressway, the Palisades Interstate Parkway, Interstate 76, Interstate 78, Interstate 80, Interstate 195, Interstate 280, Interstate 287, and Interstate 295. Other major roadways include U.S. 1, U.S. 9, U.S. Route 1/9.
New Jersey has interstate compacts with all three neighboring states. The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, the Delaware River Port Authority (with Pennsylvania), and the Delaware River and Bay Authority (with Delaware) operate most of the major transportation routes into and out of New Jersey. Bridge tolls are collected in one direction only — it is free to cross into New Jersey, but motorists must pay when exiting the state. Exceptions to this are the Dingman's Ferry Bridge and the Delaware River-Turnpike Toll Bridge where tolls are charged both ways. The Washington Crossing and Scudders Falls (on I-95) bridges near Trenton, as well as Trenton's Calhoun Street and Bridge Street ("Trenton Makes") bridges, are toll-free.
- See also: List of New Jersey State Highways
Newark Liberty International Airport is one of the busiest airports in the United States. Operated by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, which runs the other two major airports in the New York City region (John F. Kennedy International Airport and LaGuardia Airport), it is one of the main airports serving the New York City area. Continental Airlines is the facility's largest tenant, operating an entire terminal at Newark, which it uses as one of its primary hubs. United Airlines and FedEx operate cargo hubs. The adjacent Newark Airport railroad station provides access to the trains of Amtrak and New Jersey Transit along the Northeast Corridor Line.
Two smaller commercial airports, Atlantic City International Airport and Trenton-Mercer Airport, also operate in other parts of New Jersey. Teterboro Airport, in Bergen County, is a general aviation airport popular with private and corporate aircraft, due to its proximity to New York City.
Rail and bus
- Further information: New Jersey Transit Bus Operations, New Jersey Transit Rail Operations, Port Authority Trans-Hudson, and Port Authority Transit Corporation
The New Jersey Transit Corporation (NJ Transit) operates extensive rail and bus service throughout the state. NJ Transit is a state-run corporation that began with the consolidation of several private bus companies in North Jersey. In the early 1980s, it acquired the commuter train operations of Conrail that connect towns in northern and central New Jersey to New York City. NJ Transit has eight lines that run throughout different parts of the state. Most of the trains start at various points in the state and most end at either Pennsylvania Station, in New York City, or Hoboken Terminal in Hoboken. NJ Transit began service between Atlantic City and Lindenwold in 1989 and extended it to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in the 1990s.
NJ Transit also operates three light rail systems in the state. The Hudson-Bergen Light Rail connects Bayonne to North Bergen, with planned expansion into Bergen County communities. The Newark City Subway is the only subway system in the state. Its Main Line connects Newark Penn Station with Grove Street station in Bloomfield. The Broad Street Line of the subway, the first component of the Newark-Elizabeth Rail Link, opened in the summer of 2006. The last of the three light rail lines is the River Line which connects Trenton and Camden.
The PATH links North Jersey and New York City. The PATH operates four lines that connect various points in North Jersey and New York. The lines all start in either Hudson County or Essex County, New Jersey and end either at the World Trade Center station or at 33rd Street in Midtown Manhattan.
The PATCO High Speedline links Camden County and Philadelphia. PATCO operates a single elevated and subway line that runs from Lindenwold to Center City Philadelphia. PATCO operates stations in Lindenwold, Voorhees, Cherry Hill, Haddonfield, Haddon Township, Collingswood, and Camden, along with four stations in Philadelphia.
Amtrak also operates numerous long-distance passenger trains in New Jersey to and from neighboring states and around the country. In addition to the Newark Airport connection, other major Amtrak railway stations include Trenton Rail Station, Metropark, and the grand historic Newark Penn Station.
Some private bus carriers still remain in New Jersey. Most of these carriers operate with state funding to offset losses and state owned buses are provided to these carriers of which Coach USA companies make up the bulk. Other carriers include private charter and tour bus operators that take gamblers from other parts of New Jersey, New York City, Philadelphia, and Delaware to the casino resorts of Atlantic City.
There are many ferry services that currently operate in New Jersey. The Delaware River and Bay Authority operates ferries between Fort Mott in New Jersey and Fort Delaware and Fort DuPont in Delaware. The Delaware River and Bay Authority also has ferry service from Cape May to Lewes, Delaware. New York Waterway has numerous ferry terminals in Belford, Jersey City, Hoboken and Weehawken. The stops are at Port Liberte, Liberty Harbor, Colgate/Exchange Place in Jersey City, Belford, Port Imperial and Lincoln Harbor in Weehawken, Hoboken Terminal (Hoboken South) and 14th Street (Hoboken North) in Hoboken. These ferries run to one or several of the Manhattan stops at Wall Street, the World Financial Center or Midtown at 39th St. Liberty Landing in Jersey City has ferries from Portside in Paulus Hook and Liberty Landing in Liberty State Park. The Circle Line ferry has service from Liberty State Park to Ellis Island and the Statue of Liberty. Although there is a bridge from Ellis Island to Jersey City, it was built for renovations on the building on the island and is considered unsafe for public use. SeaStreak offers services from the Raritan Bayshore to Manhattan and during the Met's season Shea Stadium. The ferries on the Bayshore leave from Atlantic Highlands and two terminals in Highlands. New York Water Taxi also has seasonal service from Paulus Hook to Wall Street. Ferry service from Keyport and Perth Amboy have been proposed and ferry service from Elizabeth has been discussed with a proposed light rail connection to Newark Airport and Downtown Elizabeth
Private bus carriers
- Bergen Avenue IBOA
- Broadway IBOA
- Coach USA Properties including Red & Tan
- DeCamp Bus
- Greyhound- provides interstate service
- Lakeland Bus Lines
- MARTZ Trailways- does not receive state funding or buses
- Montgomery & West Side IBOA
- Trans-Bridge Lines
Law and government
- Further information: Governor of New Jersey, Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey, New Jersey Legislature, and 2006 New Jersey State Government Shutdown
Jon Corzine (Democrat) is the Governor. In April 2007, Corzine was seriously injured in a car accident but returned to office duty in early May. The Governor of New Jersey is considered one of the most powerful governorships in the nation, as it is currently the only state-wide elected office in the state and appoints many government officials. Formerly, an acting governor was even more powerful as he simultaneously served as President of the New Jersey State Senate, thus directing half of the legislative and all of the executive process. Richard Codey was the last to serve that way as the result of a state constitutional amendment approved by the voters in 2005.
New Jersey is currently one of the few states that has no Lieutenant Governor. The first Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey will take office in January 2010 and will be elected conjointly with the Governor of New Jersey. The position was created as the result of a Constitutional amendment to the New Jersey State Constitution passed by the voters on November 8, 2005 and effective as of January 17, 2006.
The current version of the New Jersey State Constitution was adopted in 1947. It provides for a bicameral New Jersey Legislature, consisting of an upper house Senate of 40 members and a lower house General Assembly of 80 members. Each of the 40 legislative districts elects one State Senator and two Assembly members. Assembly members are elected for a two-year term in all odd-numbered years; State Senators are elected in the years ending in 1, 3, and 7 and thus serve either four or two year terms.
New Jersey is one of only five states that elects its state officials in odd numbered years (The others are Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Virginia). New Jersey holds elections for these offices every 4 years in the years following federal Presidential election years. Thus, the last year when New Jersey elected a Governor was 2005; the next gubernatorial election will occur in 2009, with future gubernatorial elections to take place in 2013, 2017, 2021, etc.
The New Jersey Supreme Court consists of a Chief Justice and six Associate Justices. All are appointed by the Governor with the advice and consent of a majority of the membership of the State Senate. Justices serve an initial seven-year term, after which they can be reappointed to serve until age 70.
Most of the day-to-day work in the New Jersey courts is carried out in the Municipal Courts, where simple traffic tickets, minor criminal offenses, and small civil matters are heard. More serious criminal and civil cases are handled by the Superior Court for each county.
New Jersey is unusual in that it still has separate courts of law and equity, like its neighbor Delaware but unlike most other U.S. states. The New Jersey Superior Court is divided into Law and Chancery Divisions at the trial level.
- Further information: List of New Jersey counties
New Jersey is broken up into 21 counties, 13 of which date from the colonial era. New Jersey was completely divided into counties by 1692; the present counties were created by dividing the existing ones; most recently Union County in 1857. New Jersey is the only state in the nation where elected county officials are called "Freeholders," governing each county as part of its own Board of Chosen Freeholders. The number of freeholders in each county is determined by referendum, and cannot exceed nine members.
Depending on the county, the executive and legislative functions may be performed by the Board of Chosen Freeholders or split into separate branches of government. In some counties, members of the Board of Chosen Freeholders perform both legislative and executive functions on a commission basis, with each Freeholder assigned responsibility for a department or group of departments. In other counties (Atlantic, Bergen, Essex, Hudson and Mercer), there is a directly-elected County Executive who performs the executive functions while the Board of Chosen Freeholders retains a legislative and oversight role. In counties without an Executive, a County Administrator (or County Manager) may be hired to perform day-to-day administration of county functions.
New Jersey has 566 municipalities; the number was 567 before Pahaquarry Township was absorbed by Hardwick Township in 1997. Unlike other states in the west and south, all New Jersey land is part of a municipality, as well as a county. No local government can simply absorb land from another.
Types of government
When the types of government were devised in the nineteenth century, the intention was that cities would be large built-up areas, with progressively smaller boroughs, towns, and villages; the rural areas in between would be relatively large townships. This is still often true, although Shrewsbury Township has been divided over the years; today it is less than a square mile, consisting only of a single housing development. Some townships—notably Middletown, Brick, Hamilton, and Toms River—have, without changing their boundaries, become large stretches of suburbia, as populous as cities, often focused around shopping centers and highways rather than traditional downtowns and main streets.
As with Toms River, many locations in New Jersey are simply neighborhoods, with no exact boundaries; often the cluster of houses, the traditional neighborhood, the postal district, and the Census designated place will differ.
The Federal Government has often failed to understand that a New Jersey township is just another municipality, and some municipalities have changed forms to become the Township of the Borough of Verona or the Township of South Orange Village to receive more federal aid.
Forms of government
|New Jersey Municipal Government|
|1923 Municipal Manager|
|Faulkner Act Forms|
|Changing Form of Municipal Government|
|Charter Study Commission|
The five types of municipality differ mostly in name. Originally, each type had its own form of government but more modern forms are available to any municipality, even though the original type is retained in its formal name. Only boroughs can (but are not required to) have the "borough form" of government.
Starting in the 1900s, largely driven by reform-minded goals, a series of six modern forms of government was implemented. This began with the Walsh Act, enacted in 1911 by the New Jersey Legislature, which provided for a 3- or 5-member commission elected on a non-partisan basis. This was followed by the 1923 Municipal Manager Law, which offered a non-partisan council, provided for a weak mayor elected by and from the members of the council, and introduced Council-Manager government with an (ideally apolitical) appointed manager responsible for day-to-day administration of municipal affairs.
The Faulkner Act, originally enacted in 1950 and substantially amended in 1981, offers four basic plans: Mayor-Council, Council-Manager, Small Municipality, and Mayor-Council-Administrator. The act provides many choices for communities with a preference for a strong executive and professional management of municipal affairs and offers great flexibility in allowing municipalities to select the characteristics of its government: the number of seats on the Council; seats selected at-large, by wards, or through a combination of both; staggered or concurrent terms of office; and a mayor chosen by the Council or elected directly by voters. Most large municipalities and a majority of New Jersey's residents are governed by municipalities with Faulkner Act charters. Municipalities can also formulate their own unique form of government and operate under a Special Charter with the approval of the New Jersey Legislature.
While municipalities retain their types of government, they may have changed to one of the modern forms of government, or further in the past to one of the other traditional forms, leading to municipalities with formal names quite baffling to the general public. For example, though there are four municipalities that are officially named villages, Loch Arbour is the only one remaining with the village form of government. The three other villages—Ridgefield Park (now with a Walsh Act form), Ridgewood (now with a Faulkner Act Council-Manager charter), and most confusingly, South Orange (now the Township of South Orange Village) —have all migrated to other non-village forms.
New Jersey was once a politically competitive state in past federal elections but has become a Democratic stronghold since the 1980s. In state elections, offices remain competitive; the New Jersey Legislature was evenly divided from 1999 to 2001. Currently, New Jersey Democrats hold the Governorship, have majority control of both houses of the Legislature (Senate: 22-18 & Assembly: 49-31), while federal Democrats hold both U.S. Senate seats and also 7 out of 13 of the state's delegation to the United States House of Representatives. Republicans have not won a statewide election since 1997. With the exception of then-Vice President George H.W. Bush's 1988 presidential victory, no Republican has received a majority of the vote in a statewide election since 1985, though the state had a Republican governor from 1994 to 2002, as Christie Todd Whitman won twice with vote percentages of 47 and 49 percent.
In federal elections, the state leans heavily towards the national Democratic Party. It was, however, a Republican stronghold for years in the past, having given comfortable margins of victory to the Republican candidate in the close elections of 1948, 1968, and 1976. New Jersey was a crucial swing state in the elections of 1960, 1968, and 1992. The last elected Republican to hold a Senate seat from New Jersey was Clifford P. Case in 1979. (Nicholas F. Brady was appointed a U.S. Senator by Governor Thomas Kean in 1982 after Harrison A. Williams resigned the Senate seat following the Abscam investigations.)
The state's Democratic strongholds include Mercer County around Trenton and Princeton; Essex County and Hudson County, the state's two most urban counties, around the state's two largest cities, Newark and Jersey City; Camden County and most of the other urban communities just outside of Philadelphia and New York; and more suburban northern counties in New York's orbit, such as Union County and Middlesex County.
The more suburban northwestern and southeastern counties of the state are reliably Republican: Republicans have backing along the coast in Ocean County and in the mountainous northwestern part of the state, especially Sussex County, Morris County, and Warren County. Somerset County and Hunterdon County, other suburban counties in the region, are also Republican in local elections but can be competitive in national races. In the 2004 General Election, President George W. Bush received about 52% in Somerset and 60% in Hunterdon, while up in rural Republican Sussex County, Bush won with 64% of the vote.
About half of the counties in New Jersey, however, are considered swing counties, but some go more one way than others. For an example, Bergen County, which leans Republican in the northern half of the county, is mostly Democratic in the more populated southern parts, causing it to usually vote slightly Democratic (same with Passaic County, with a highly populated Hispanic Democratic south and a rural, Republican north), other "swing" counties like Cape May County tend to go Republican, as they also have population in conservative areas.
Socially, New Jersey is considered one of the most liberal and progressive states in the nation. New Jersey has a domestic partnership law which is available to both same-sex and opposite-sex couples. Moreover, effective February 19, 2007, New Jersey became the third state in U.S. (the other two being Connecticut and Vermont) to offer civil unions to same-sex couples. New Jersey Civil Union offers all and equal 850+ rights, privileges and responsibilities, obligations to same-sex couples and only falls short of naming the term as 'marriage'. Polls indicate two thirds of the population are self-described as pro-choice and a majority support same-sex marriage in New Jersey. New Jersey also has some of the most severe gun control laws in the U.S. This includes bans on assault firearms, hollow nose bullets and even slingshots. No gun offense in New Jersey is graded less than a felony. BB guns and black powder guns are all treated as modern firearms. Visitors to the state should beware of bringing any firearms into the state. New Jersey recognizes no out of state gun licenses and aggressively enforces its own gun laws.
Prominent cities and towns
Major cities (and their populations):
Large cities (100,000 or greater)
For its overall population and nation-leading density, New Jersey has a relative paucity of classic large cities. As of the United States 2000 Census, only four municipalities had populations in excess of 100,000. With the 2004 Census estimate, Woodbridge has surpassed Edison in population, as both joined the 100,000 club.
- Newark: 273,546 (Census Estimate 2005: 280,666)
- Jersey City: 240,055 (Census Estimate 2005: 239,614)
- Paterson: 149,222 (Census Estimate 2005: 149,843)
- Elizabeth: 120,568 (Census Estimate 2005: 125,809)
- Edison 97,687 (Census Estimate 2005: 100,499)
- Woodbridge Township: 97,203 (Census Estimate 2005: 100,577)
Towns and small cities (60,000 up to 100,000)
- Toms River Township: 89,706
- Hamilton Township (Mercer County): 87,109
- Trenton: 85,403
- Camden: 79,904
- Clifton: 78,672
- Brick Township: 76,119
- Cherry Hill Township: 69,965
- East Orange: 69,824
- Passaic: 67,861
- Union City: 67,088
- Middletown Township: 66,327
- Gloucester Township: 64,350
- Bayonne: 61,842
- Irvington: 60,695
- Old Bridge Township 60,456
- Lakewood Township 60,352
Other (less than 60,000)
The following communities are other notable places in New Jersey with under 60,000 people.
Wealth of municipalities
Wealth of municipalities and communities by per capita income:
1 Mantoloking, New Jersey $114,017
693 Newark, New Jersey $13,009
Although some problems exist in certain inner city neighborhoods, New Jersey overall is considered to have one of the best public education systems in the United States.[Who says this?] 54% of high school graduates continue on to college or university, which is tied with Massachusetts for the second highest rate in the nation (North Dakota holds first place at 59%). New Jersey also has the highest average scores for advanced placement testing in public schools in the nation. Secretary of Education Rick Rosenberg, appointed by Governor Jon Corzine, has created the Education Advancement Initiative (EAI) to increase College admission rates by 10% for New Jersey's high school students, decrease drop out rates by 15%, and increase the amount of money devoted to schools by 10%. Rosenberg was since forced to retract this plan when publicly criticized for taking the money out of healthcare to fund this initiative.
New Jersey is ranked first in the nation in funding K-12 education but is ranked last in higher-education funding.
New Jersey is home to more scientists and engineers per square mile than anywhere else in the world.
Recreation & Entertainment
Professional sports teams
New Jersey currently has five teams from major professional sports leagues playing in the state, although the Major League Soccer team and two National Football League teams identify as being from New York. It is currently the most populous state without a team in each of the major leagues, although this is largely due to the close proximity of New York City and Philadelphia. It is also the most populous state without a Major League Baseball team, though most residents support the New York Yankees, New York Mets, or Philadelphia Phillies.
The state's four major professional sports teams play at the Meadowlands Sports Complex in East Rutherford. The Devils and Nets play in Continental Airlines Arena, and the Giants and Jets play in Giants Stadium. The Meadowlands and its sports venues are widely considered to be outdated by today's professional sports standards. This led to the Devils announcement that they will be leaving the Meadowlands upon the completion of the new Prudential Center in Newark in 2007. The Nets also have plans to leave the Meadowlands for Brooklyn as soon as a new arena for them is completed. The Giants and Jets though announced in 2005 that they will be staying in the Meadowlands, and a new stadium for both teams should be ready by the 2010 season. The new stadium is part of the Xanadu Project taking shape at the sports complex. The Xanadu Project, when completed in 2007, will be the largest retail and entertainment complex in New Jersey.
The sports complex is also home to the Meadowlands Racetrack one of three major horse racing tracks in the state. The Meadowlands Racetrack along with Freehold Raceway in Freehold are two of the major harness racing tracks in North America. Monmouth Park Racetrack in Oceanport, is also a popular spot for thoroughbred racing in New Jersey and the northeast. It will host the Breeders' Cup in 2007, and its turf course was recently renovated in preparation.
In 1978, the New Jersey legislature approved casino gambling in Atlantic City.
- In an April 12, 2007 car accident, Corzine was the third straight New Jersey governor to break a leg while in office. James E. McGreevey broke his left leg in 2002 during a nighttime walk on the beach, and Christie Whitman broke her right leg while skiing in the Swiss Alps in 1999.
- New Jersey has the largest grove of cherry blossom trees in the United States, eclipsing the more famous one in Washington D.C.
- The USS New Jersey, one of the most decorated vessels in the United States Navy, was named in honor of this state and is now a tourist attraction in Camden.
- New Jersey is the birthplace of many modern inventions such as: FM radio, the motion picture camera, the lithium battery, the light bulb, transistors, and the electric train. Other New Jersey creations include: the drive-in movie, the cultivated blueberry, cranberry sauce, the postcard, the boardwalk, the zipper, the phonograph, saltwater taffy, the dirigible, the first use of a submarine in warfare, and the ice cream cone.
- Joseph Bonaparte, the brother of Napoleon I, lived for 17 years in the South Jersey town of Bordentown.
- The first officially recorded baseball game in history was played at the Elysian Fields, Hoboken, New Jersey, with the New York Base Ball Club defeating the New York Knickerbockers with a score of 23-1. Alexander Cartwright formalized the rules and umpired.
- The first intercollegiate football game in history was played in New Brunswick, New Jersey on November 6, 1869, with home team Rutgers University defeating Princeton University 6-4. Rutgers University is considered "The Birthplace of College Football."
- The properties in the United States version of the board game Monopoly are named after the streets of Atlantic City.
- The four-mile long Boardwalk in Atlantic City was the world's first boardwalk and is still its largest.
- The Lindbergh kidnapping drama unfolded in New Jersey in 1932.
- New Jersey was the national pioneer of Megan's Law sex offender registries, following the 1994 rape and murder of Megan Kanka.
- New Jersey has more horses per square mile than any other state. The United States Equestrian Team now is headquartered in Gladstone after being founded in Morristown.
- The book Jaws by Peter Benchley, which inspired the classic film of the same name, was based on a series of actual shark attacks during the summer of 1916 that took place in Matawan and elsewhere off the Jersey Shore.
- Diners are common in New Jersey. The state is home to many diner manufacturers and has more diners than any other state: over 600. There are more Diners in the state of New Jersey than any other place in the world.
- Ben Shahn settled in Roosevelt, New Jersey, and did most of his work there. The art building at William Paterson University of New Jersey is named after him.
- Sculptor Jim Gary grew up in Colts Neck Township where he also opened his gallery, Iron Butterfly, before moving it to Red Bank. Jim Gary was the only living sculptor ever invited to have a solo show at the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of Natural History.
- New Jersey is one of only two states (along with Oregon) where self-service filling of gasoline is prohibited.
- The world's highest quality fluorescent minerals and the most number of minerals found in any one location is located in Franklin Furnace. There are mineral museums in Franklin and Ogdensburg.
- New Jersey is the only state without a state song. "I'm From New Jersey" is incorrectly listed on many websites as being the New Jersey State Song, but wasn't even a contender when in 1996 the New Jersey Arts Council submitted their suggestions to the New Jersey Legislature. 
Legends and ghosts
A long-circulated legend says a creature, the Jersey Devil or the Leeds Devil, terrorizes the population of the Pine Barrens. The New Jersey Devils are named for this mythical creature. New Jersey is also home to several other legends, such as the ghost of Annie's Road in Totowa; Albino Village in Clifton; Gravity Road in Franklin Lakes; the supposed Ku Klux Klan hotbed Whippoorwill Valley Road in Middletown; the haunted and demon-possessed Clinton Road in West Milford; and the Witch of Igoe Road in Marlboro. There is also the popular attraction of the Atco Ghost—the ghost of a little boy runs across the street late at night chasing a basketball on Burnt Mill Road in Atco. It is also rumored that Jimmy Hoffa, the late leader of the Teamsters Union, is buried beneath Giants Stadium or the New Jersey Turnpike. However, on the popular television show Mythbusters, the myth of Jimmy Hoffa being buried under Giants Stadium was debunked using ground penetrating radar.
There are 14 major New Jersey newspapers including The Press of Atlantic City, The Star-Ledger, Courier Post, The Times, The Asbury Park Press (Monmouth and Ocean County), The Jersey Journal, The Express-Times, Gloucester County Times, Bridgeton News, Today's Sunbeam, Hunterdon County Democrat, The Warren Reporter, The Reporter (Somerset), Independent Press, Cranford Chronicle, The Record-Press and Suburban News, The Trentonian (Mercer).
Television and film
- In the movie 1996 science fiction film Independence Day the scene in which Jeff Goldblum and Judd Hirsch are playing chess was filmed in West New York, NJ.
- Motion picture technology was invented in New Jersey, by Thomas Edison. The early work was done at his West Orange laboratory. His "Black Maria" was the first motion picture studio.
- More recent motion pictures and televisions shows also have been set in New Jersey. The popular television drama The Sopranos depicts the life of a New Jersey organized crime family and is filmed on location at various places throughout the state. The Family Man, starring Nicholas Cage was filmed in Teaneck in 2000. The 1979 film The Amityville Horror was filmed in Toms River and the scene in the church is filmed in Point Pleasant. The popular FOX television show House is set in a fictional hospital located in the Princeton-Plainsboro area. Another FOX show, Point Pleasant was based on a fictional version of the town. It was not shot on location within the town of the same name in 2005. Cartoon Network's Adult Swim cartoons Aqua Teen Hungerforce and Megas XLR both take place in New Jersey. The opening of the popular NBC comedy Ed (TV series) was filmed in Hillsdale and Westfield, New Jersey.
- Cable network CNBC originates most of its in-studio programming from Englewood Cliffs, while sister network MSNBC broadcasts the bulk of its in-studio programming from Secaucus.
- All of Kevin Smith's movies take place in New Jersey (though not all of them are filmed there there), as Smith grew up in Red Bank, New Jersey.
- The popular character The Toxic Avenger is often touted as the first superhero from New Jersey.
- Camp NoBeBoSco in Blairstown was the location of the original Friday the 13th movie (some believe the series of films to be set in New Jersey, although this is never confirmed onscreen), which was partially based on real murders that have occurred near the campground, in the state's rural northwest. Such horror stories were the inspiration behind the now nationally famous Weird NJ magazine and website.
- In the animated tv comedy Futurama, New Jersey is slandered many times by the characters. In one episode, Fry finds a seemingly ideal apartment in New Jersey while house hunting, but later comments that he found "not one place even remotely liveable". In another, when discussing the global garbage problem, a television ad states that "...landfills were full...New Jersey was full...", implying a lack of places to store garbage. Additionally, Robot Hell is located in Atlantic City.
- Singer Frank Sinatra was born in Hoboken. He sang with a neighborhood vocal group, the Hoboken Four, and appeared in neighborhood theater amateur shows before he became an entertainment legend as an Academy Award winning actor and one of the most famous male vocalists of all time.
- Bruce Springsteen, who has sung of New Jersey life on most of his albums, hails from Freehold and is the most popular rock musician to ever come out of the state. Some of his songs that represent New Jersey life are "Born to Run," "Spirit In The Night," "Rosalita (Come Out Tonight)," "Thunder Road," "Atlantic City," and "Jungleland."
- Irvington's Queen Latifah was the first female rapper to succeed in music, film, and television.
- Lauryn Hill is from South Orange, New Jersey. Her 1998 debut solo album, The Miseducation of Lauryn Hill, sold 10 million copies internationally. She also sold millions with The Fugees second album The Score.
- Redman (Reggie Noble) was born, raised, and resides in Newark. He is the most successful African-American solo hip-hop artist out of New Jersey.
- All members of The Sugarhill Gang were born in Englewood.
- Jon Bon Jovi, who hails from Sayreville, reached fame in the 1980s with hard rock outfit Bon Jovi. The band has also written many songs about life in New Jersey including "Livin' On A Prayer" and even named one of his albums after the state. (see New Jersey)
- Singer Dionne Warwick was born in East Orange.
- Singer Whitney Houston (who is Dionne Warwick's cousin) was born in Newark, and grew up in neighboring East Orange.
- Legendary jazz pianist and bandleader Count Basie was born in Red Bank in 1904. In the 1960s, he collaborated on several albums with fellow New Jersey native Frank Sinatra. The Count Basie Theatre in Red Bank is named in his honor.
- Parliament-Funkadelic, the pioneering funk music collective, was formed in Plainfield by George Clinton.
- Asbury Park is home of The Stone Pony, which Bruce Springsteen and Bon Jovi frequented early in their careers and is still considered by many to be a "Mecca" for up-and-coming Jersey Shore musicians.
- Hip-hop pioneers Naughty By Nature hail from East Orange.
- In 1964, the Isley Brothers founded the record label T-Neck Records, named after Teaneck, their home at the time.
- The Broadway musical "Jersey Boys" is based on the lives of the members of the Four Seasons, three of whose members were born in New Jersey (Tommy DeVito, Frankie Valli, and Nick Massi)
- Famous jazz pianist Bill Evans was born in Plainfield in 1929.
- Horror punk band The Misfits hail from Lodi, as well as their founder Glenn Danzig.
- Punk rock poet Patti Smith is from Mantua.
- Acclaimed indie rock veterans Yo La Tengo are based in Hoboken. They also have a song called "The Night Falls on Hoboken".
- New Jersey was the hub for ska music in the 90's. Some of the most popular ska bands, such as Catch 22 and Streetlight Manifesto, come from East Brunswick.
- Four of the five members of the rock band My Chemical Romance hail from Newark, Belleville, and Kearny.
- Black Label Society's and Ozzy Osbourne's famed guitarist Zakk Wylde was born and raised in Bayonne.
|State bird||Eastern Goldfinch
|State freshwater fish||Brook Trout
|State dance||Square Dance|
|State insect||European Honey Bee
|State flower||Common Meadow Violet
|State motto||"Liberty and prosperity"|
|State tree||Northern Red Oak
(Quercus borealis maxima)
(syn. Quercus rubra)
|State dinosaur||Hadrosaurus foulkii|
|State color||Buff and Jersey Blue|
|State ship||A.J. Meerwald|
|State fruit||Northern highbush blueberry
|State vegetable||Jersey tomato
|State shell||Knobbed whelk
(Busycon carica gmelin)
|State memorial tree||Dogwood
|State slogan||Come see for yourself.|
- List of New Jersey-related topics
- List of New Jersey state parks
- List of people from New Jersey
- New Jersey census statistical areas
- New Jersey State Police
- Scouting in New Jersey
- Namesake - Jersey, Channel Islands
- ^ The Garden State and Other New Jersey State Nicknames, Robert Lupp, New Jersey Reference Services, New Jersey State Library, Oct. 12, 1994
- ^ a b Elevations and Distances in the United States. U.S Geological Survey (29 April 2005). Retrieved on November 6, 2006.
- ^ http://www.usgennet.org/usa/nj/state/NJ-History.htm
- ^ Geological History by Great Swamp Watershed Association, retrieved December 22, 2005.
- ^ Klinghoffer and Elkis ("The Petticoat Electors: Women’s Suffrage in New Jersey, 1776–1807." Journal of the Early Republic 12, no. 2 (1992): 159–193.)
- ^ Gerdes, Louise I. The 1930s, Greenhaven Press, Inc., 2000.
- ^ QuickFacts: New Jersey. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on 2007-02-28.
- ^ U.S. Census Bureau (2007-05-17). 2006 Population Estimates. Retrieved on 2007-05-30.
- ^ U. S. Census Bureau (2006-12-15). Cumulative Estimates of the Components of Population Change for the United States, Regions and States: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2006 (NST-EST2006-04) (Microsoft Excel). Retrieved on 2007-05-30.
- ^ ibid.
- ^ ibid.
- ^ Migration Policy Institute. Percent Foreign Born by State (1990, 2000, 2005) (Microsoft Excel). MPI Data Hub: Migration Facts, Stats, and Maps.
- ^ United States — States; and Puerto Rico GCT-P14. Income and Poverty in 1999: 2000
- ^ Population and Population Centers by State: 2000, accessed November 16, 2006
- ^ Jewish Population of the United States by State. Jewish Virtual Library (2002).
- ^ The Foreign Born from India in the United States, dated December 1, 2003
- ^ PDF (10.6 KiB)
- ^ Mapping Census 2000: The Geography of U.S. Diversity (Microsoft Excel)
- ^ PDF (468 KiB)
- ^ Metropolitan Areas and Components, 1999, with FIPS codes
- ^ Mayer, Egon; Kosmin, Barry A., Keysar, Ariela (2001). American Religious Identification Survey, Key Findings, Exhibit 15. City University of New York. Retrieved on January 4, 2007.
- ^ Bureau of Economic Analysis
- ^ Fortune 500 2007 - States: New Jersey (2007-03-30). Retrieved on 2007-05-30.
- ^ Supreme Court of New Jersey
- ^ SurveyUSA Pro-Life vs. Pro Choice Sorted by State
- ^ Garden State Equality Poll Results from surveys done April 12 - April 14, 2005
- ^ PDF (176 KiB)
- ^ PDF (533 KiB)
- ^ Delaware / Hudson Valley Hot Spot for biotechnology
- ^ 50states.com: New Jersey Facts and Trivia
- ^ The History of the New Jersey State Song?
- ^ NJ.com: New Jersey Advertising
- ^ http://www.state.nj.us/faqs/facts.html
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- Official New Jersey state web site
- Official New Jersey state tourism site
- A list of official and unofficial NJ county and municipal web sites
- Descriptions of NJ forms of government (e.g., township, borough, etc.) from NJ State League of Municipalities
- USGS real-time, geographic, and other scientific resources of New Jersey
- AboutNewJersey.com - New Jersey Travel and Tourism Information
- US Census Bureau
- NJ.com, portal site for the Star-Ledger, Jersey Journal, Asbury Park Press and Trenton Times
- New Jersey Resource Directory and Events Calendar
- Abandoned and Historic Mines of New Jersey
- New Jersey State Facts
- NJ Event and Resource Guide
- Upstage Magazine - New Jersey arts & entertainment news
- AsburyMusic.com - Asbury Park's Online Music Community
- New Jersey Court Directory
- PDF (468 KiB)
- Specific ancestry maps by county, place, and census tract
State of New Jersey
Atlantic Coastal Plain | Central Jersey | Delaware River Region | Delaware Valley | Gateway Region | Gold Coast | Highlands | Jersey Shore | Meadowlands | New York metro area | North Hudson | North Jersey | Pascack Valley | Piedmont | Pine Barrens | Raritan Bayshore | Ridge‑and‑valley Appalachians | Shore Region | Skylands Region | South Jersey | Tri‑State Region
Atlantic City | Bayonne | Camden | Cherry Hill | Clifton | East Orange | Edison | Elizabeth | Hackensack | Hoboken | Jersey City | Linden | Long Branch | Newark | New Brunswick | Passaic | Paterson | Perth Amboy | Plainfield | Princeton | Toms River | Trenton | Union City | Vineland
Atlantic | Bergen | Burlington | Camden | Cape May | Cumberland | Essex | Gloucester | Hudson | Hunterdon | Mercer | Middlesex | Monmouth | Morris | Ocean | Passaic | Salem | Somerset | Sussex | Union | Warren
|States||Alabama · Alaska · Arizona · Arkansas · California · Colorado · Connecticut · Delaware · Florida · Georgia · Hawaii · Idaho · Illinois · Indiana · Iowa · Kansas · Kentucky · Louisiana · Maine · Maryland · Massachusetts · Michigan · Minnesota · Mississippi · Missouri · Montana · Nebraska · Nevada · New Hampshire · New Jersey · New Mexico · New York · North Carolina · North Dakota · Ohio · Oklahoma · Oregon · Pennsylvania · Rhode Island · South Carolina · South Dakota · Tennessee · Texas · Utah · Vermont · Virginia · Washington · West Virginia · Wisconsin · Wyoming|
|Federal District||Washington, D.C. (District of Columbia)|
|Insular Areas||American Samoa · Guam · Northern Mariana Islands · Puerto Rico · U.S. Virgin Islands|
|Outlying Islands||Baker Island · Howland Island · Jarvis Island · Johnston Atoll · Kingman Reef · Midway Atoll · Navassa Island · Palmyra Atoll · Wake Island|
|List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Ratified Constitution on December 18, 1787 (3rd)